Mandaeisme atau Mandaeanisme (bahasa Arab: مندائية Mandāʼīyah) adalah sebuah agama gnostik: dengan kosmologi dualistik yang kuat. Para pengikutnya, Mandanean, memuliakan Adam, Habil, Seth, Enos, Nuh, Sem dan Aram dan khususnya Yahya. Mandaean adalah suku Semit dan pemakai dialek Aram Timur yang dikenal sebagai bahasa Mandaik. Nama ‘Mandaean’ dikatakan berasal dari kata Aram manda yang artinya “pengetahuan”, seperti halnya kata gnosis dalam bahasa Yunani. Di Timur Tengah, selain di luar komunitas mereka, Mandaean lebih dikenal sebagai Ṣubba (tunggal: Ṣubbī) atau Sabian. Istilah Ṣubba berasal dari akar Aram yang berkaitan dengan pembaptisan, neo-Mandaik disebut Ṣabi. Dalam Islam, “Sabian” (bahasa Arab: الصابئون al-Ṣābiʾūn) disebut beberapa kali dalam al-Qur’an sebagai Ahli Kitab, bersama dengan Yahudi dan Nasrani. Terkadang, Mandaean disebut “Umat Kristen dari Santo Yohanes”. (Wikipedia)
Nasrani Mandaeans / Nasoraean Mandaeans
Those few who are initiated into the secrets of the Mandaean religion are called Naṣuraiia or Nasoraeans / Nasaraeans meaning guardians or possessors of secret rites and knowledge. According to the Haran Gawaita, Nasoraean Mandaeans fled Jerusalem before its fall in 70 CE due to persecution by a faction of Jews. The word Naṣuraiia may come from the root n-ṣ-r meaning “to keep”, since although they reject the Mosaic Law, they consider themselves to be keepers of Gnosis. Epiphanius mentions a group called Nasaraeans (Νασαραίοι, Part 18 of the Panarion), distinguished from the “Nazoraioi” (Part 19. According to Joseph Lightfoot, Epiphanius also makes a distinction between the Ossaeans and the Nasaraeans, the two main groups within the Essenes:
The Nasaraeans ‐ they were Jews by nationality ‐ originally from Gileaditis, Bashanitis and the Transjordan … They acknowledged Moses and believed that he had received laws ‐ not this law, however, but some other. And so, they were Jews who kept all the Jewish observances, but they would not offer sacrifice or eat meat. They considered it unlawful to eat meat or make sacrifices with it. They claim that these Books are fictions, and that none of these customs were instituted by the fathers. This was the difference between the Nasaraeans and the others.
— Epiphanius’ Panarion 1:18
The Nasaraeans may be the same as the Mandaeans of today. Epiphanius says (29:6) that they existed before Christ. That is questioned by some, but others accept the pre-Christian origin of this group.
In the Ginza Rabba, the term Nasoraean is used to refer to righteous Mandaeans, i.e., Mandaean priests (comparable to the concept of pneumatikoi in Gnosticism).As Nasoraeans, Mandaeans believe that they constitute the true congregation of bnai nhura meaning ‘Sons of Light’.
Kerancuan Nama Nasrani
The Nazarenes (or Nazoreans; Greek: Ναζωραῖοι, Nazōraioi)were an early Jewish Christian sect in first-century Judaism. The first use of the term is found in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 24:5) of the New Testament, where Paul the Apostle is accused of being a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes (“πρωτοστάτην τε τῆς τῶν Ναζωραίων αἱρέσεως”) before the Roman procurator Antonius Felix at Caesarea Maritima by Tertullus.At that time, the term simply designated followers of Jesus of Nazareth, as the Hebrew term נוֹצְרִי (nôṣrî),andthe Arabic term نَصَارَى (naṣārā),still do.
As time passed, the term came to refer to a sect of Jewish Christians who continued to observe the Torah along with Noachide gentiles who were grafted in to the covenant, in contrast to gentile Christians who eschewed Torah observance. They are described by Epiphanius of Salamis and are mentioned later by Jerome and Augustine of Hippo. The writers made a distinction between the Nazarenes of their time and the “Nazarenes” mentioned in Acts 24:5.
Seringkali orang Kristen disebut sebagai Nasrani. Dan orang kristen sendiri bingung apakah Nasrani adalah orang Kristen. Menurut admin, pada mulanya nama Nasrani merujuk pada Umat KRisten karena Yesus disebut sebagai Orang dari Nazaret. Akan tetapi seiring perjalanan waktu, nama Nasrani merujuk pada Sekte di dalam Kekristenan yang merupakan gnostik yang mengagungkan Yohanes Pembaptis